Blowout Week 92

Bankers are in the news this week. We begin with Mark Carney ….

Financial Times:  Mark Carney warns investors face ‘huge’ climate change losses

The governor of the Bank of England has thrown down the gauntlet to the fossil fuel industry with a blunt warning that investors face “potentially huge” losses from climate change action that could make vast reserves of oil, coal and gas “literally unburnable”. In a sweeping assessment of the financial risks posed by global warming, Mark Carney acknowledged there was a danger the assets of fossil fuel companies could be left “stranded” by tougher rules to curb climate change. Mr Carney said scientists had calculated the “carbon budget” the world could afford if it is to meet the 2°C target, and it amounted to between one-fifth and one-third of the world’s proven reserves of oil, gas and coal. “If that estimate is even approximately correct it would render the vast majority of reserves ‘stranded’ — oil, gas and coal that will be literally unburnable without expensive carbon capture technology, which itself alters fossil fuel economics,” he said. “The exposure of UK investors, including insurance companies, to these shifts is potentially huge,” he told a Lloyd’s of London dinner on Tuesday night, explaining 19 per cent of FTSE 100 companies were in the natural resources and extraction industries.“The challenges currently posed by climate change pale in significance compared with what might come,” he said. “Once climate change becomes a defining issue for financial stability, it may already be too late.”

… and follow up below the fold with a plea for climate action from six major US banks. And then the usual mix of stories, including OPEC production up in September, Mexico’s leasing program back on track, Shell pulls the plug in the Arctic, how choking wells will save shale oil, the fusion future, no winter gas shortage in Europe, Japan to restart another reactor, European renewables growth stalls, solar jobs at risk in Aberdeen, volatile organic compounds – a previously unknown source of global cooling, the world’s first potato powered power plant and how turtle-eating sharks are fighting climate change.

Continue reading

Posted in Blowout | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

El Hierro Renewable Energy Project – September 2015 Performance Review

This is the first of a series of periodic reports on the performance of the Gorona del Viento (GdV) hybrid wind-pumped hydro plant on the island of El Hierro in the Canaries, the ultimate goal of which is to demonstrate that a remote island that has historically been entirely dependent on diesel power can generate 100% of its electricity from renewables.

After a year-long test period the GdV plant went into full operation on June 27, 2015. According to grid data published by the Red Eléctrica de España (REE) renewable energy from GdV has supplied 42% of the electricity sent to the El Hierro grid in the 96 days of operation since then (from June 27 through September 30) with the remaining 58% coming from diesel:

Posted in Energy | Tagged , , , | 18 Comments

UK Electricity Supply, September 2015

Scotland has had a dreadful summer. Our rivers have been in flood for most of the year. But then along came September and with high pressure stable over the North Sea we are now enjoying an Indian Summer. And so is much of Northern Europe. This is good for the soul, but as we shall see dreadful for both wind and hydro production. We imported more electricity in September (9%) than was produced by wind (6%).

According to DECC, the UK had 10.9 GW of installed wind at end May 2015. At 08:35 on 26th September this massive wind park managed to produce 0.134 GW. That works out at 1.2% load. The maximum for the month was 5.3 GW, 48.6% load, at 06:05 on 12th September. The average wind load for the month was 16%.

Hydro has operated well below capacity all month with an average load of 9% (compare with 41% in January this year). Imports via inter-connectors have been full on all month with average load of 68%. Nuclear had average load of 74%.

According to DECC, the UK had 81 GW of generating capacity at end May of which 10.9 GW was wind. With 70.1 GW of dispatchable capacity (excluding 4 GW inter-connectors), and peak winter demand of the order 55 GW, there does not seem to be a risk of blackouts caused by lack of capacity this winter unless natural gas supplies are disrupted.

Figure 1 UK electricity supply for September 2015. Data from BM reports via Gridwatch. Click chart to get a large, readable copy. There have been three UK-wide wind lulls this month; 7th-8th, 13th to 19th and 26th to ongoing. The bulk of generation has come from nuclear, coal, gas (CCGT) and imports (see Figure 3) which are probably mainly rooted in French nuclear.
Continue reading

Posted in Energy | Tagged , , , , , , | 22 Comments

Oil Production Vital Statistics September 2015

With momentous events unfolding on the World stage, the oil market continues to evolve at a glacial pace. Global total liquids production was 96.29 Mbpd in August, down 630,000 bpd from the June peak. But with oversupply running at over 3 Mbpd during the second quarter, there is still a long way to go to rebalance the system. Production in OPEC, Europe, Russia and E Asia is stable with no sign of turning down. In fact, Norway and the UK appear to be skipping annual maintenance this summer and European production is up 420,000 bpd compared with a year ago. The only region showing a marginal production decline is N America where production has fallen 580,000 bpd from the April peak.

I believe the stalemate will be broken in October. The oil price chart is forming a “head and shoulders” pattern, and if the price tests the recent August lows the moment of truth will arrive. Barring major events, it is difficult to imagine the price rising from here, near term. I therefore anticipate the price to break to the low side with significant losses. This is required to restore balance to the system.

  • World total liquids production down 570,000 bpd to 96.29 Mbpd.
  • OPEC production down 220,000 bpd to 31.57 Mbpd (C+C)
  • N America production down 220,000 bpd to 19.48 Mbpd.
  • Russia and FSU down 50,000 bpd to 13.88 Mbpd
  • Europe up 420,000 bpd to 3.28 Mbpd (compared with August 2014)
  • Asia up 60,000 bpd to 7.93 Mbpd.
  • Middle East rig count is stable. The international oil rig count has stopped falling while the US oil rig count is showing signs of turning down again.

Figure 1 The oil price now appears to be forming a classic “head and shoulders” chart pattern. This in itself is not yet diagnostic of any future trend. To complete the pattern the oil price needs to test the recent lows ($38.22 for WTI and $41.59 for Brent, both on August 24th). This I expect will happen in October. If these lows break down it can be expected that the price will plunge much lower. If, on the other hand the lows provide support this should indicate that the lows are in and a price recovery may begin. Given that the gross oversupply situation persists, my expectation is for the former outcome. A total capitulation is required to rectify the oversupply status.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy | Tagged , , , , , , | 15 Comments

UK Weather Trends since 1998

Last week Paul Homewood published an interesting guest post by meteorologist Neil Catto. The charts that run from November 1998 speak for themselves:

Continue reading

Posted in Climate change, Political commentary | Tagged , , | 11 Comments

Blowout week 91

At the top of the news this week is the VW diesel emissions scandal, which among other things draws attention to the failure of attempts to cut carbon emissions via mass conversion of vehicles to “clean diesel”.

Bloomberg:  Climate Politics and the Volkswagen Scandal

A third scandal, even more costly than the first two, also needs to be noticed and examined. It concerns the economic and environmental policies that first set European car manufacturers and consumers on course to this pile-up. Remember that “clean diesel” was a government-led initiative, brought to you courtesy of Europe’s taxpayers. Beginning in the mid-1990s, mindful of their commitments to cut carbon emissions, Europe’s governments embarked on a prolonged drive to convert their car fleets from gasoline to diesel. With generous use of tax preferences, they succeeded. In the European Union as a whole, diesel vehicles now account for more than half of the market. In France, the first country to cross that threshold, diesel now accounts for roughly 80 percent of motor-fuel consumption. What was the reasoning? Diesel contains more carbon than gasoline, but diesel engines burn less fuel: Net, switching to diesel ought to give you lower emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there’s a penalty in higher emissions of other pollutants, including particulates and nitrogen oxides, or NOx. Curbing those emissions requires expensive modifications to cars’ exhaust systems. To facilitate the switch, Europe made its emission standards for these other pollutants less stringent for diesel engines than for gasoline engines. The priority, after all, was to cut greenhouse gases. Except that the switch to diesel probably didn’t cut greenhouse gases.

The usual mix of stories below the fold – conventional O&G projects under threat, Russia considers breaking Gazprom’s export monopoly, a court orders Pakistan to take measures against climate change, Norway to cut gas pipeline tariffs, how international trade agreements could derail the Paris Climate Conference, renewables outstrip coal in UK, Drax to abandon CCS, investors shun Hinkley, a mobile renewable energy generating plant (with diesel backup), the Trinity portable wind turbine, a grim picture in the North Sea, the record hurricane drought in US continues, how the sun controls Antarctic climate and how global warming is shortening the tongues of bumble bees.

Continue reading

Posted in Blowout | Tagged , , , , , , , | 10 Comments

Urban Heat Islands – A Different Way of Looking at Urban Warming

Urban warming impacts are usually evaluated by comparing temperature gradients in urban areas with temperature gradients in adjacent rural areas. This post approaches the question from a different perspective. Instead of looking at urban warming per se it looks at the urban heat islands that cause it. How common are they? How variable are they? How large are the areas they cover? What are their amplitudes? Knowing the answers to these questions could help improve our understanding of how much of the increase in global surface air temperature over the period of instrumental record might have been caused by urban warming. Alternatively it might confuse us even further, but that’s a form of progress too.

Continue reading

Posted in Climate change | Tagged , | 8 Comments

The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Temperature Record

  • In this post I compare the de-trended HadCRUT4 global temperature reconstruction with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index (AMO).
  • The AMO fluctuates between cold and warm phases on a quasi 66 year cycle, 33 years warming followed by 33 years cooling, and is modulated by strengthening and weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) [1]. The AMO has been in warm phase since around 1995 with consequences for climate in the circum N Atlantic domain.
  • There is a high degree of co-variance with R^2 = 0.52, but with occasional periods where the AMO and HadCRUT4 are out of phase, for example in the 1950s (Figure 1). Fluctuations in AMOC and the AMO can explain much of but not all the cyclical variance in the global temperature record. Much of the global warming since 1850 also correlates with upwards trending North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (NA SSTs).
  • The AMO is now due to enter it’s cooling phase that may continue for 20 or more years. Global temperatures may therefore continue to trend sideways or down, unless greenhouse gas emissions have the power to overcome nature.

Figure 1 De-trended HadCRUT4 compared with the AMO index that is based on de-trended NA SSTs. AMO index from NOAA. (AMO unsmooth long)

Continue reading

Posted in Climate change, Political commentary | Tagged , , , , , | 37 Comments

Another Visit to El Hierro

Guest post by Hubert Flocard(1)

The Gorona del Viento plant on the island on El Hierro has been hailed all over the world as an example of how a remote island that has historically been 100% dependent on fossil fuel generation can produce all of its electricity from renewable energy sources. Is this a correct assessment?

Well, it seems that no one other than Energy Matters is making any effort to find out – certainly the plant operators are in no hurry to publish any results. Thus we are doubly indebted to Hubert Flocard for this exhaustively detailed and carefully reasoned analysis, which was completed from scratch in a remarkably short period of time.

Hubert’s conclusions are summarized immediately below so I won’t bother to repeat them here. As Hubert graciously notes in his Acknowledgements section I am not entirely in agreement with them, but rather than make this introduction interminably long I will put my alternative scenario forward in comments.


Continue reading

Posted in Energy | Tagged , , , , | 13 Comments

Blowout Week 90

The oil wars are coming down to the wire:

Telegraph:  OPEC has victory in its sights in oil price war with US shale

(Image credit: Economist)

The Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) has given the clearest signal yet that it believes it is winning its oil price war with the US shale industry. The group of 12 mainly Middle Eastern producers has said that output from outside the cartel in 2016 will be over 100,000 barrels per day (bpd) lower than it had previously predicted, as lower prices shut down more production. In its closely-watched monthly market report, Opec said: “There are signs that US production has started to respond to reduced investment and activity. Indeed, all eyes are on how quickly US production falls.” The report said that the number of oil drilling rigs in the US declined in the week ending September 4, down by 13 units to 662 rigs. The overall rig count in the US – which is seen as a key barometer for the industry – is now down 864 units year-on-year. A 50pc slump in the price of oil to levels well below $50 per barrel is putting pressure on higher cost producers outside Opec – which pumps about a third of the world’s crude – in spiralling a price war. Opec has continued to pump over its target ceiling of 30 million bpd in a bid to seize back market share from the threat in sees from the rapid growth in US oil output.

More on the travails of US shale oil below the fold, plus a looming shortage of US natural gas, the forthcoming uranium boom, China burning more coal than thought, nuclear plant decommissioning problems in Germany, more threats to the UK grid, Scotland’s SMAUG anti-fracking group, Australia’s greens unhappy with Turnbull, Ireland missing its renewables target, the Paris climate talks, climate scientists demand that skeptics be prosecuted, killer viruses from melting Arctic Ice and mutant fish from Fukushima.

Continue reading

Posted in Blowout | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | 38 Comments

The Diverging Surface Thermometer and Satellite Temperature Records Again

Joint post with Roger Andrews

In my recent post titled The Diverging Surface Thermometer and Satellite Temperature Records, Roger posted 4 charts in the comments that I felt were both interesting and important. For those not up to speed with the importance of comparing surface thermometer with satellite data it boils down to understanding the rate of global warming and whether or not the lower troposphere is still warming as all the climate models predict should be happening. The satellite data (UAH and RSS) shows little to no warming since 1997 – the famous pause – while all the surface thermometer records now show continued warming (e.g. GISS LOTI and HadCRUT4). One of the data sets must be faulty and Roger’s charts cast some further light on this issue.

Here we deal with the charts in the reverse order from Roger’s comment. Figure 1 compares the UAH satellite (over sea only) and Hadley sea surface temperature (HadSST3) records. HadSST3 makes up 71% of HadCRUT4, the combined land-ocean record commonly used to define the Earth’s ‘surface temperature’. The grey trace shows the difference between these two data sets and shows a near flat line. There is literally no difference between surface temperatures and temperatures measured by satellites over the oceans. This suggests that both these data sets are reliable.

Figure 1 Satellite over-sea temperature (UAH) compared with sea surface temperature (HadSST) data. The difference between the two is the grey trace at bottom which shows the gradient of satellite and surface data over oceans are the same.

Continue reading

Posted in Climate change | Tagged , , , , , | 26 Comments

CO2 Emissions – Who Are Europe’s “Dirty Men”?

In his recent Emissions Reduction, Renewables and Recession post Euan Mearns made the following statement: “In terms of CO2 reduction (i.e. lack of it), Poland, Norway and Germany are the dirty men of Europe.” As we shall see Euan’s claim is broadly correct, but the success a country has had or not had in reducing its CO2 emissions is only one of a number of indicators that can be used to gauge its carbon dirtiness (or cleanliness). Here I combine five different ones to rank 26 European countries by carbon cleanliness/dirtiness in order to obtain a more broad-based perspective as to who the dirty men of Europe really are.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy, Political commentary | Tagged , , , | 15 Comments

Corbyn in La La Land

I have to admit that during the leadership election campaign Jeremy Corbyn impressed me. He swept the Blairite robots aside in a landslide victory that opens a new (or is it an old?) chapter in British politics. And Monday evening I saw an interview with his newly appointed shadow chancellor, the reviled (in New labour) John McDonnell. He too came over as a very intelligent, thinking man. These two, with a single stroke of the brush, appear to have swept aside the catatonic, sound bite based, politically correct, and fundamentally dishonest Blairite era and New Labour with it. For doing that I am grateful. But I was in danger of being seduced.

Then today this link fell into my mail box. Publicly, Corbyn has not been too vocal on energy and environment issues, but this article he published on 7 August shows him to be Squeaky Green and espousing technically and economically unworkable Green energy policies. No real surprise there!

  • Britain providing international leadership on climate change and the socialisation of our energy supply leading an end to the era of fossil fuels

Continue reading

Posted in Energy, Political commentary | Tagged , | 71 Comments

The Diverging Surface Thermometer and Satellite Temperature Records

  • HadCRUT4* and the NASA GISS LOTI time temperature series, that are based on surface thermometers, show a high level of agreement (Figure 1). Offset differences  between the two is roughly 0.2˚C which is largely inconsequential in the bigger picture. One curious discrepancy is that GISS LOTI temperatures have continued to rise since 1998 while HadCRUT4 is more flat.
  • The UAH and RSS satellite based time temperature series also show a high degree of agreement largely within 0.1˚C.
  • A linear regression through the HadCRUT4 data shows a long-term warming trend of 0.48˚C per century.  A linear regression through the UAH satellite data shows warming of 1.11˚C per century. The much higher rate of warming is because the satellite record, that begins in 1980, only samples the recent up leg of what is fluctuating time temperature data (Figure 1).
  • Surface thermometers compared with satellite data also show a high degree of agreement, which is a credit to all the scientists that work on compiling these fundamentally important data sets. The differences are subtle, but the surface thermometer series and satellite data are diverging with time over the relatively short 35 years of satellite data. In this time frame, the surface thermometers are warming at a rate of 0.42˚C per century more rapidly than the satellite data. This is a substantial bias that requires an explanation. This bias is sufficient to send surface thermometers into record breaking territory while the satellite data continues to move sideways and down since 1998.

* all data sources and acronyms are explained at the end of the post

Figure 1 GISS LOTI is biased to higher T anomalies than HadCRUT4. This is largely down to the different base periods chosen for calculating anomalies; 1951-1980 for GISS and 1961-1990 for HadCRUT4. The linear regression through HadCRUT4 is largely matched by parallel rising tops and bottoms (dashed lines). GISS LOTI is rising at 0.69˚C per century (not shown), appreciably higher than HadCRUT4, and caused in part by the recent acceleration in the GISS index.

Continue reading

Posted in Climate change | Tagged , , , , , , , | 33 Comments

Blowout week 89

Corbyn is the new UK Labour Party Leader. What does it portend?

Reuters: Corbyn elected UK opposition Labour leader

Karl Marx admirer Jeremy Corbyn was elected leader of Britain’s opposition Labour party on Saturday, a victory that may make a British EU exit more likely and which one former Labour prime minister has said could leave their party unelectable. Greeted by cheers from supporters in the room and hailed by radicals across Europe, Corbyn’s triumph opened up the prospect of deep splits within Labour with some fearing he will repel voters with radical policies that include unilateral nuclear disarmament, nationalization and wealth taxes. “Things can and they will change,” Corbyn, who when he entered the contest was a rank outsider, said in his acceptance speech after taking 59.5 percent of votes cast, winning by a far bigger margin than anyone had envisaged. His victory reflects growing popular support for left-wing movements across Europe, with Syriza taking power in Greece and Spain’s anti-austerity party Podemos performing well in opinion polls. However, the scale of division Corbyn’s victory has created in his own party was immediately laid bare with one Labour lawmaker quitting his role as a health spokesman while Corbyn was making his acceptance speech. Others quickly followed, saying they would not serve in his senior team.

Back to low-priced oil below the fold, plus problems for Gazprom, E.ON not to spin off nuclear after all, Hinkley “not a bottomless pit”, Japan burns record coal, Paris Climate Conference falling short, radiocarbon dates may be wrong, Scotland to subsidize EVs, Southern Ocean absorbing more carbon, Worthington on fracking, China to build UK nuclear plant, what happens if the world burns all its fossil fuels, two notable advances in PV technology and the low carbon Climatarian diet.

Continue reading

Posted in Blowout | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 14 Comments

CO2 Emissions Reductions – What History Teaches Us

Historical data show that if a country wishes to cut its CO2 emissions by a meaningful amount it has two options that can be guaranteed to work – expand nuclear or reduce energy consumption. There are as yet no clear instances of a country achieving significant CO2 reductions by expanding intermittent renewable energy.


In this post I use CO2 emissions and other data from BP for the period 1965-2014 to identify cases where a country or a group of countries’ CO2 emissions have decreased by at least 20% over a decade or two and to identify the cause of the decrease. (Note that the BP data include only CO2 emissions from consumption of oil, gas and coal.) It follows on from Euan Mearn’s recent post “CO2 Emissions Reduction, Renewables and Recession”.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy, Political commentary | Tagged , , , , , , | 50 Comments

Time for the Tories to Repeal The 2008 Climate Change Act

Energy Matters reader Doug Brodie has sent an email to all Tory MPs appealing for them to repeal the 2008 Climate Change Act. More on Doug’s email in a moment, but first a brief look at what the Climate Change Act says.

It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline.


Amendment of 2050 target or baseline year
The Secretary of State may by order
(a) amend the percentage specified in section 1(1);
(b) amend section 1 to provide for a different year to be the baseline year.

Hence, in is not actually necessary to repeal The Act since the secretary of State has powers to change the target, but since Amber Rudd is not going to be Secretary of State forever and nor will the Tories be in power for ever, they should in my opinion do the deed while the going is good.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy, Political commentary | Tagged , , | 152 Comments

CO2 Emissions Reduction, Renewables and Recession

EU CO2 emissions have fallen by 17% since 2008. Does this vindicate the energy policy mandating 20% of total energy from renewables by 2020? For member countries, a comparison of the per capita wind + solar installed capacity in 2014 with the CO2 reduction in each country 2008-2014 has no correlation (R2 = 0.01). At face value, installing wind and solar devices appears to make no difference to CO2 emissions reduction.

What does correlate with CO2 reduction in member countries is economic growth. A group of seven countries have had negative aggregate growth since 2008 (Denmark, Italy, Portugal, Finland, Ireland, Greece and Spain). These are the countries, stuck in depression, that have the highest degree of emissions reduction.

In contrast, the countries with strongest growth have barely reduced their emissions at all. A comparison of economic growth and CO2 reduction has R2=0.42.  In terms of CO2 reduction (i.e. lack of it), Poland, Norway and Germany are the dirty men of Europe. And for example, the UK has lower per capita CO2 emissions than Norway and Germany and has reduced emissions appreciably more since 2008 (Figure 1).

Continue reading

Posted in Energy, Political commentary | Tagged , , , , , , , | 41 Comments

Blowout week 88

In this week’s bumper-sized Blowout we await further developments on oil prices and OPEC and feature instead the future of renewable energy. We begin with the city of Peterborough, whose attempts to develop solar and wind power recently came to a grinding halt. Is Peterborough’s experience a sign of things to come elsewhere in the world?

Peterborough Council Leader Marco Cereste launches Peterborough’s solar panel scheme

Reuters:  Multi-million pound solar panel scheme for Peterborough faces uncertain future

A multi-million pound solar panel scheme for Peterborough has an uncertain future due to a government proposal to heavily reduce subsidies. The pioneering scheme to put solar panels on residents’ homes was expected to benefit property owners with around £200 of free energy every year and boost Peterborough City Council’s coffers by £1 million over 20 years. The scheme – the first of its kind in the country – was agreed by the council and Empower Community late last year and it was thought that eventually solar panels could be installed on the roof of every house in the city. However, the government has announced that it is looking to cut subsidies available for electricity generated from rooftop solar panels by nearly 90 per cent. The proposed cut is “far greater” than what the council expected and leaves it uncertain as to how its scheme will be impacted. A sharp reduction in government subsidies would be a further setback to the council after it was forced to scrap plans for three renewable energy parks harnessing wind and solar power on farmland. The projects were all finally shelved in the past year – despite the council having already spent more than £3 million on them – after the government announced that support for large scale solar projects would be scrapped.

Immediately below the fold we read that even Denmark is now planning to back off its commitment to renewables – followed by the usual eclectic mix of stories, including delays at Hinkley Point, farewell Eggborough, molten salt reactors, ENI’s gas discovery in Egypt, California divests from coal, Germany keeps it, the world still overheating, sea level rise to consume HUGE areas of the UK, Gazprom making deals, a breakthrough year for storage batteries, Britain wins CCS jackpot, Obama wants more icebreakers, another failed Met Office prediction and how climate change will kill more women than men.

Continue reading

Posted in Blowout | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 28 Comments

EU Renewable Energy Targets: The Compliance Statistics are Suspect

This post examines EU renewable energy targets and how the various member states are doing in meeting the targets agreed for 2020. It has been found that the compliance data published by Eurostat do not agree with the raw Eurostat or BP statistics.

On April 23, 2009 the European Parliament issued Directive 2009/28/EC, which committed the European Union to obtaining 20% of its energy – note energy, not electricity – from renewable sources by 2020. Figure 1 summarizes the progress individual EU countries had made towards their individual 2020 targets as of the end of 2013, the last year for which data are available from Eurostat, the EU’s official record-keeper. (Only 21 of the 28 EU countries are discussed here because data for Estonia, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta and Slovenia are incomplete. Renewables generation in these countries is, however, minimal):

Figure 1: Compliance with EU renewables directive targets as of end 2013, data from Eurostat “overall share of energy from renewable resources”

With seven years to go Sweden, Bulgaria and Lithuania had already met or exceeded their 2020 targets, Romania, Italy, the Czech Republic, Finland and Austria were within a percent or so of meeting theirs and all the countries between Denmark and Germany were estimated to be on a “trajectory” that would bring them into compliance before 2020. The EU as a whole was within 5% of its collective 20% target and was, and still is, expected to meet it.

At the bottom, however, are four laggard countries that were and still are projected to miss their targets – Ireland, France, the Netherlands and, ignominiously bringing up the rear, the UK.

How did the UK end up down there?

Continue reading

Posted in Energy | Tagged , , , | 59 Comments